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Richmond Green
Conservation Area Appraisal
Conservation area no.4

Figure 1 Painting of Maids of Honour Row, 1901

Figure 1 Painting of Maids of Honour Row, 1901

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Statement of Significance
  3. Location and Setting
  4. Historical Development
  5. Architectural Quality and Built Form
  6. Management Plan

1. Introduction

Purpose of this document

The principal aims of conservation area appraisals are to:

  • Describe the historic and architectural character and appearance of the area which will assist applicants in making successful planning applications and decision makers in assessing planning applications;
  • Raise public interest and awareness of the special character of their area;
  • Identify the positive features which should be conserved, as well as negative features which indicate scope for future enhancements.

This document has been produced using the guidance set out by Historic England in the 2019 publication titled Understanding Place: Conservation Area Designation, Appraisal and Management, Historic England Advice Note 1 (Second Edition).

This document will be a material consideration when assessing planning applications.

What is a Conservation Area?

The statutory definition of a conservation area is an ‘area of special architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance’. The power to designate conservation areas is given to local authorities through the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservations Areas) Act, 1990 (Sections 69 to 78). Once designated, proposals within a conservation area become subject to local conservation policies set out in the Council’s Local Plan and national policies outlined in the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) and the London Plan. Our overarching duty, which is set out in the Act, is to preserve and/or enhance the historic or architectural character or appearance of the conservation area.

Conservation Areas SPD (pdf, 653 KB)

Buildings of Townscape Merit

Buildings of Townscape Merit (BTMs) are buildings, groups of buildings or structures of historic or architectural interest, which are locally listed due to their considerable local importance. The policy, as outlined in the Council’s Local Plan, sets out a presumption against the demolition of BTMs unless structural evidence has been submitted by the applicant, and independently verified at the cost of the applicant. Locally specific guidance on design and character is set out in the Council’s Buildings of Townscape Merit Supplementary Planning Document (2015) (pdf, 895 KB), which applicants are expected to follow for any alterations and extensions to existing BTMs, or for any replacement structures.

What is an Article 4 Direction?

An Article 4 Direction is made by the local planning authority. It restricts the scope of permitted development rights either in relation to a particular area or site, or a particular type of development anywhere in the authority's area. The Council has powers under Article 4 of the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 2015 to remove permitted development rights. 

Article 4 Directions are used to remove national permitted development rights only in certain limited situations where it is necessary to protect local amenity or the wellbeing of an area. An Article 4 Direction does not prevent the development to which it applies, but instead requires that planning permission is first obtained from the Council for that development. View further information about Article 4 Directions to check if any permitted developments rights in relation to a particular area/site or type of development apply in your area.

What is a Conservation Area Appraisal?

A conservation area appraisal aims to describe the special historic and architectural character of an area. A conservation area’s character is defined by a combination of elements such as architecture, uses, public realm, materials and detailing as well as the relationship between buildings and their settings. Many other elements contribute to character and appearance such as the placement of buildings within their plots; views and vistas; the relationship between the street and the buildings and the presence of trees and green space. The conservation area appraisal is an evidence base rather than a planning policy document. This means that it is the main document for recording what is of principal importance in terms of character and appearance for each conservation area. However, the relevant policies are contained within the borough’s Local Plan. Refer to the Council’s website for the latest Local Plan.

Conservation Area Map

Conservation Area Map

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2. Statement of Significance

Summary of special architectural and historic interest of conservation area.

Figure 2 Drawing of Richmond Palace, 1750

Figure 2 Drawing of Richmond Palace, 1750

 

  • Richmond is a historically significant settlement, which has origins dating from the 14th
  • The use of a variety of materials, including red and stock facing brick, stucco, both decorative and plain, and stone facing are evenly distributed throughout the area.
  • The townscape is noteworthy for its variety, with a consistently high quality and many exuberant individual buildings. There are also residential areas of mainly terraced development and more uniform rows of houses of a similar design.
  • Building heights vary from two to five storeys and roof treatments vary but pitched roof forms predominate.
  • Richmond Green is an open space with a tranquil residential character. It provides a welcome contrast from the busy town centre and is used year-round by visitors and residents alike.
  • The Green is lined on all sides by residential properties of varying ages and architectural styles. The south side is also home to many offices and businesses.
  • Little Green is defined by Richmond Theatre and Richmond Library, which lend a distinct character in contrast to the buildings surrounding the larger Richmond Green.
  • The remains of Richmond Palace, a royal residence of King Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, are located to the west of Richmond Green.
  • Richmond Theatre, Maids of Honour Row and Palace Gate House are important architectural contributors to the Green.
  • Several small lanes, some dating from the early development of Richmond – Brewer’s Lane, Golden Court, Waterloo Place, Church Court, Victoria Place, Mitre Court and the Market Passage – provide a refuge from traffic and are spaces of a more intimate nature.
  • The lanes to the south of Richmond Green are lined with small businesses and boutique shops that add a commercial dimension to the character of the Green. They remain largely residential on the upper floors.
  • Richmond Green is well known for its striking visual character and has been used as a backdrop for a number of television series and films.

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3. Location and Setting

General character and plan form, e.g. linear, compact, dense or dispersed; important views, landmarks, open spaces, uniformity.

Situated to the south west of London, Richmond lies between two significant areas of green space: The Old Deer Park/Kew Gardens to the north, and Richmond Park and Ham lands to the south. It is north east of Twickenham, north of Ham, south east of Isleworth, south west of Chiswick and west of Putney.

Figure 3 Aerial map showing Richmond in wider context

Figure 3 Aerial map showing Richmond in wider context

Figure 4 Map showing Richmond in wider context

Figure 4 Map showing Richmond in wider context

The Conservation Area lies in the centre of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, and although it has its own distinct character, it shares a relationship with both the Central Richmond Conservation Area and the Richmond Riverside Conservation Area, and this context should be considered when studying any of the three.  

Richmond Green Conservation Area adjoins Central Richmond to the west of George Street. Behind the busy commercial thoroughfare, the Green is a large open space bordered with trees and residential properties. At the south-east corner are some small commercial premises largely confined to Paved Court, Golden Court and Brewers Lane. The Little Green sits at the north-east corner of Richmond Green.

Richmond Green is owned by the Crown Estate and leased to the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It is roughly 12 acres in size and generally consists of open grassland, bordered by broad leafed trees.

Figure 5 Aerial map of Richmond Green

Figure 5 Aerial map of Richmond Green

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4. Historical Development

Stages/phases of historical development and historic associations (archaeology etc.), which may be influencing how the area is experienced.

The growth of Richmond has been physically constrained by the large open spaces of Richmond Park and Petersham Common to the south and south-east, the River Thames to the west and the Old Deer Park to the north, later reinforced by the railway and A316 trunk road. Thus, throughout its development the town has only really been able to expand east and north-east.

The town owes its existence largely to royal patronage when, in the second half of the 14th century, Edward III converted the manor house of Shene into a royal palace. This was demolished by Richard II after the death of his Queen, and a new palace was built by Henry V &VI. After a fire in 1497 the palace was rebuilt by Henry VII, and from 1501 the village of Shene came to be known as Richmond as Henry VII was the earl of Richmond in Yorkshire. The accession of the Stuarts saw the creation of the New Park (now the Old Deer Park) by James I from 1603 and Richmond Park by Charles I from 1634. The civil war and execution of Charles I in 1649 led to the sale and quick demolition of most of the palace, with Trumpeters’ House (1702-4), Old Court House, Wentworth House and Maids of Honour Row (1724-5) gradually being built on the site of the palace during the 18th century. However, the Gate House and associated walls and the Wardrobe survive.

Charles I brought his court to Richmond in 1625 to escape the plague. This resulted in the development of Richmond Green as it became the home of court attendants, diplomats and minor nobility. The popularity of the Green persisted after the demolition of the palace.

Richmond Green has a long association with sporting events, with jousting tournaments and archery taking place from the 16th century and cricket from the mid-18th century to the present day.

Figure 6 Drawing of Richmond Palace

Figure 6 Drawing of Richmond Palace

The village gradually developed into a town due to the presence of the palace, and decline followed its demolition. Prosperity returned towards the end of the 17th century as Londoners fled the plague, and the discovery of a spring led to Richmond becoming a popular spa town over the following century.

Figure 7 OS map, 1860s

Figure 7 OS map, 1860s

Figure 8 OS map, 1890s

Figure 8 OS map, 1890s

Figure 9 OS map, 1910s

Figure 9 OS map, 1910s

Figure 10 OS map, 1930s

Figure 10 OS map, 1930s

Figure 11 Portland Terrace, c.1890

Figure 11 Portland Terrace, c.1890

Figure 12 Pembroke Villas, c.1900s

Figure 12 Pembroke Villas, c.1900s

Figure 13 The Green, c.1900s

Figure 13 The Green, c.1900s

Figure 14 Old Palace Place as The British Red Cross Hospital, 1918

Figure 14 Old Palace Place as The British Red Cross Hospital, 1918

Figure 15 Painting of the Green, 1905

Figure 15 Painting of the Green, 1905

Figure 16 Maids of Honour Row, 1902

Figure 16 Maids of Honour Row, 1902

Figure 17 Gatehouse to Richmond Palace, c.1900

Figure 17 Gatehouse to Richmond Palace, c.1900

Figure 18 Drawing of Richmond Green, 1901

Figure 18 Drawing of Richmond Green, 1901

Figure 19 Maids of Honour Row, 1952

Figure 19 Maids of Honour Row, 1952

Figure 20 Brewers Lane, c.1940s

Figure 20 Brewers Lane, c.1940s

Figure 21 Paved Court, 1902

Figure 21 Paved Court, 1902

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5. Architectural Quality and Built Form

Dominant architectural styles, the prevalent types and periods of buildings, their status and essential characteristics, and their relationship to the topography, street pattern and/or the skyline. Also important is their authenticity, distinctiveness and uniqueness of materials, design, form, texture, colour etc.)

The Richmond Green Conservation Area has at its heart an urban green, which has medieval origins, which Niklaus Pevsner describes in 'Buildings of England' as 'one of the most beautiful urban greens surviving anywhere in England'. It is surrounded by substantial houses of exceptionally high quality and is of great historic importance due to its connections with the long since demolished royal palace and the Old Deer Park.

The Green provides a large public open space, an important recreational asset which is a pleasant visual contrast to the dense urban fabric of the town centre.

There are three distinct elements: the main part of the Green is complemented by the smaller and more secluded Little Green to the north-east and the small two contained triangles in front of Old Palace Terrace to the south-west. Maids of Honour Row front gardens, Richmond Green and Little Green are included in the London Gardens Trust Inventory as being of historic interest.

First impressions are of an elegant urban green entirely enclosed by buildings. Closer inspection reveals that whilst all sides of the Green share characteristics in terms of building materials and scale, each side is quite different in architectural form and townscape. The southern part of the Green tends to be the busiest, with a number of pubs, restaurants and shops in close proximity to one another.

Character area 1 - The Green

Figure 22 View of The Green

Figure 22 View of The Green

Figure 23 View of Pembroke Villas from the Green

Figure 23 View of Pembroke Villas from the Green

Figure 24 View of Portland Terrace from the Green

Figure 24 View of Portland Terrace from the Green

Figure 25 View of the Green bordered by trees

Figure 25 View of the Green bordered by trees

Figure 26 View of Richmond Green

Figure 26 View of Richmond Green

Townscape and Landscape

The main, central portion is a huge level open space with uninterrupted views across its wide expanse and a fittingly spacious setting for the fine houses surrounding it. The avenues of mature trees provide shade in summer and a more secluded alternative to the road for pedestrians.

The character of the Green varies seasonally as the colour, shape and leaf cover of the trees change. During the summer the formality of the Green is softened by the trees, which become the dominant element in the landscape.

Views of the buildings remain though, under the tree canopy and occasionally to chimneys and roofs over the tree line. When the trees are in leaf, the dense vegetation turns the perimeter road into a separate linear space and whilst the Green becomes a softer landscape, the road and buildings lining it take on a stronger urban character.

The most common tree species for the avenues is lime, although on the north-east and south-west sides the inner rows have been replanted with Norway maple, and the south-eastern side is planted with a single row of large London Planes.

Characteristic of the Green are the long straight paths, following apparently random but ancient routes, creating triangle and diamond shapes. Little built form intrudes into the sky above the surrounding buildings, emphasising the inward looking, almost isolated feel of the space. The landmark spire of the distant Church of St. Matthias is an attractive exception.

Figure 27 Borders of the Green

Figure 27 Borders of the Green

Figure 28 Car parking along the boundary of the Green

Figure 28 Car parking along the boundary of the Green

Parked cars are visible all around the Green and viewed from the centre do not affect its character. However, oblique views of the buildings from the perimeter road reveal that the parked cars can have a negative on the townscape.

Buildings

Figure 29 South east side of the Green

Figure 29 South east side of the Green

The south-east side of the Green consists of mainly late 17th and early 18th century terraces of townhouses. Although most properties are three storeys high, overall building heights vary widely creating a broken eaves and ridge line, which is enhanced by a number of impressive chimney stacks.

Some of the oldest surviving buildings on this side of the Green are situated next to the junction with Duke Street, including no.1 and no.3 with its later Gothic frontage.

This side of the Green includes a variety of pubs and shops, especially where the alleys and streets emerge from the town centre. Many of the houses are currently used as offices and this gives a commercial as well as residential element to its character and generates a level of activity not found elsewhere on the Green.

Figure 30 Maids of Honour Row

Figure 30 Maids of Honour Row

The south-west frontage facing the Green is less uniform, but the buildings are of an equally high quality. A key element of the character of this frontage is the changing visual experience as one moves along the road, due to the differing building lines, garden sizes and tree cover. Maids of Honour Row is the most dominant element in the frontage; a fine 18th century terrace, closest to the road, it acts as a centre piece in the street frontage. The formal three-storey composition is characterised by being divided into four properties of plum brick construction with red brick dressings surrounding the Georgian windows. The skyline is interrupted only by four chimney stacks of monumental scale, which create a strong silhouette when viewed from the Green. Their front gardens and boundary walls and railings add further character to the street and form a visual link to the Green.

Figure 31 Gate house of Richmond Palace

Figure 31 Gate house of Richmond Palace

Adjacent is the Gate House, built of red brick with battlemented towers, leading to Old Palace Yard (covered in the Riverside Conservation Area Appraisal No.17). This area is of immense historical and archaeological importance as the Gate House itself, some boundary walls and The Wardrobe to the rear incorporate the only standing remains of King Henry VII Richmond Palace of 1501. The small gateway with stone arch offers interesting views into the yard towards Trumpeters' House. The lower building height of the Gate House gives the canopy of the impressive Stone Pine in the front garden a strong silhouette, especially in the winter months. The Maids of Honour Stone Pine is listed as one of the 'Great Trees of London'. Of particular importance to both the south-east and south-west sides of Richmond Green is the constantly changing level of detail revealed to the onlooker on approach towards the buildings from the Green, the overall pattern of windows and rooflines gradually giving way to the intricate detail of individual elements such as decorative door cases and ironwork.

The north-west side of the Green was not fully developed in its current form until the mid-19th century. In contrast to the more continuous buildings on the south-east and south-west sides, this side is dominated by Pembroke Villas, five pairs of semi-detached villas in an Italianate style of mainly two to three storeys with stucco ground floors and stock yellow brick to upper floors with impressive round arched entrance porches. In many cases the front boundary walls have been lost or altered unsympathetically to accommodate car parking spaces, weakening the boundary definition.

Figure 32 1 Pembroke Villas

Figure 32 1 Pembroke Villas

Vital to the character of this side of the Green are the gaps between the villas, which allow a backdrop of sky and treetops to appear between each pair, though most have now erected modern side extensions. A large single lime tree ensures a sense of enclosure in front of the much smaller, rather suburban scaled properties in Garrick Close, the high walls of The Virginals also providing strong definition to this corner of the Green.

The north-east side of the Green is the least coherent in terms of building typology and contains some of the most recent buildings. A simple yet interesting terrace of modern three-storey town houses forms the longest element of the frontage. High front garden walls are uncharacteristic of the Green, though the boundary and homogeneity of the terrace is softened by trees and greenery. 

Figure 33 Darbourne & Darke houses in Portland Terrace

Figure 33 Darbourne & Darke houses in Portland Terrace

Figure 34 1-4 Portland Terrace

Figure 34 1-4 Portland Terrace

1-4 Portland Terrace, two pairs of mid-19th century Italianate stuccoed villas (grade II listed) of three storeys plus basement form a fine element in the townscape and visually dominate this side of the Green. The projecting towers at each end with pediments and cornices, along with grand side entrances, enrich the details. The remainder of this side of the Green consists of dense rows of mature lime trees, which maintain the enclosure separating the Green from Little Green.

Character Area 2 - Little Green

Figure 35 Little Green

Figure 35 Little Green

Townscape and Landscape

The Little Green is less formal than the Green, and its small size and mature trees give it a more intimate feel, a closer relationship existing between the space and buildings around it. A civic element to the character of Little Green is provided by the varied frontage of the former church, theatre and library facing it, in contrast to the residential areas around the sides of the Green.

Buildings

Figure 36 1-3 Little Green

Figure 36 1-3 Little Green

The buildings on the south-east side of Little Green continue the built frontage of the terraces on the Green but are mainly public buildings rather than shops or offices. They are also more monumental, imposing and individual in character than the groups of buildings on the Green, and the key contribution that they make is as a varied and architecturally interesting group element in the townscape.

At the corner with Duke Street is a notable late 19th century office, formerly educational turned office building with distinctive decorative stucco and portico, and a sensitive modern extension on the Duke Street frontage. Set back from the road behind railings is the impressive Onslow Hall.

Richmond Theatre, 1899 (grade II*), is a most impressive exuberantly detailed building of red brick and buff terracotta, designed by Frank Matcham, with a grand projecting entrance with steps flanked by twin towers. Above the entrance is a decorative arch and pediment and twin copper domed towers, a landmark from some distance. In contrast is the comparatively restrained lending library in soft red brick with solid stonework dressings.

Figure 38 Richmond Theatre

Figure 38 Richmond Theatre

Adjacent is a more domestically scaled two-storey building, which was formerly a private residence but now also part of the library. It has decorative gables and bay windows at each end and timberwork detailing. At the corner of the Green is the former United Reformed Church, now residential use, an imposing Gothic building with two huge lancet windows and thick buttresses ending in pinnacles making it one of the more prominent buildings on the Little Green.

Figure 39 Former United Reformed Church, Little Green

Figure 39 Former United Reformed Church, Little Green

The north-west and south-west sides of the Little Green are defined by tree planting, reinforcing the enclosure of the space. The north-west side is the most open in aspect, consisting of the side elevation and garden walls of Portland Terrace. The tree line here is less substantial though the trees in the gardens of Portland Terrace are important in maintaining the enclosure of the space. On the north-east side of The Green, a short terrace of three fine listed town houses marks the gateway into The Green from Parkshot along with the Church. Their front boundary walls have all but disappeared to provide car parking space, thereby weakening the boundary definition.

Character Area 3 - The Urban Square

Townscape and Landscape

Figure 40 View of Old Palace Place

Figure 40 View of Old Palace Place

Figure 41 Old Palace Place

Figure 41 Old Palace Place

Figure 42 Cycle stands, Old Palace Terrace

Figure 42 Cycle stands, Old Palace Terrace

The small square in front of Old Palace Terrace has the character of a small intimate suburban green space. However, the road bisects the space, and due to the traffic and parked cars the grassed areas have little recreational use although they are visually important. Mature trees add character and definition to the space.

Buildings

The south-east and south sides of the square are characterised by terraces of listed town houses, ensuring a strong urban edge of very high-quality townscape. The block of which Old Palace Terrace forms a part is well defined and of exceptionally high-quality townscape. The south-east elevation is separated from the adjacent buildings by Paved Court, a narrow alley of York stone lined with small shops. This, together with Brewers Lane, is one of the most picturesque alleys in the town centre, containing many good quality shopfronts. Leading from King Street it emerges into a small open space by the Prince’s Head Public House. This is a diverse space, with activity from nearby shops and outdoor pub seating; street trees, red phone boxes and a Victorian drinking fountain. The quality of the buildings facing it give the space a human scale and a degree of tranquillity.

Figure 43 Old Palace Terrace

Figure 43 Old Palace Terrace

Figure 44 The Prince's Head Public House

Figure 44 The Prince's Head Public House

Figure 45 Pair of K6 telephone boxes

Figure 45 Pair of K6 telephone boxes

Figure 46 Paved Court

Figure 46 Paved Court

Figure 47 Victorian drinking fountain

Figure 47 Victorian drinking fountain

The north-west side of this green space is less well enclosed, consisting only of the side elevation of 45 The Green, its boundary wall adding definition to the square and enclosure at a more pedestrian scale. The row of lime trees on the north-east perimeter of the Green, gives a strong sense of enclosure to the space but allows good views across the main Green to the prominent Portland Terrace.

Routes into the Green

Despite its enclosed character, the Green is far more permeable than initial impressions suggest. Although there are no fewer than ten routes into the Green, the dense urban form of the town centre prevents any longer views into it. The contrast between the narrow courts and the wide, open space, and the 'surprise' elements, is one of the townscape highlights of the Conservation Area.

Brewers Lane, one of the earliest streets in Richmond to be built and named, has no association with brewing, but was named for a William Brewer who had a cottage there in 1576. This paved passageway links the Richmond Green Conservation Area to George Street in the Central Richmond Conservation Area, and has a number of listed buildings from the eighteenth century.

Figure 48 Brewers Lane

Figure 48 Brewers Lane

In a similar way, the close proximity of the Green to the River Thames is not immediately apparent to the casual observer. Old Palace Lane and Friars Lane are historic routes connecting the river to the Green and both have bends that ensure there are no direct views between either features, which provides a pleasant element of surprise in the townscape. These streets are analysed in detail in the Richmond Riverside Conservation Area Appraisal. The relationship between the Green and the Old Deer Park is also not readily apparent. A pair of large brick gate piers in the northern corner of the Green give access to a pedestrian route to the Old Deer Park, which crosses over the railway line before descending into the car park beside the A316, which includes part of the outer perimeter of the park.

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6. Management Plan

This Management Plan outlines how the Council intends to preserve and enhance the character and appearance of the Conservation Area in future. The Council has a duty to formulate and publish these proposals under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990.

Please note that the following proposals include suggested environmental improvements, some of which may fall outside the Council’s control. There are also likely to be limitations to implementing some of the proposals, including resource challenges.

Problems and Pressures

General

  • Loss of traditional architectural features and materials due to unsympathetic alterations and extensions.
  • Use of poor-quality products in building works such as uPVC, roofing felt and GRP (glass-reinforced plastic) products.
  • Loss of front boundary definition, sometimes due to front garden parking to accommodate vehicles.
  • Burglar alarms, poorly designed hanging signs, air conditioning equipment and various accoutrements add to the clutter and unsightliness of some shopfronts.
  • The entire Conservation Area is dominated by parked cars.

Routes and spaces

  • The small urban square in front of Old Palace Terrace suffers from the dominance of parked cars and traffic as well as poorly maintained surfacing.

Buildings

  • There is no longer any strong front boundary definition to 1-3 Little Green.
  • Further encroachment into the gaps between Pembroke Villas and damage to front boundaries due to front garden car parking.

Eyesore sites

  • The view along Quadrant Road to the rear of the shops is unattractive.
Figure 49 Rear of Quadrant Road

Figure 49 Rear of Quadrant Road

Opportunities for Enhancement and Recommendations

  • Preservation, enhancement and reinstatement of architectural quality and unity.
  • Resist new development outside the Green, which would be visible above the roof line of its perimeter buildings when viewed from within the Green.
  • Encourage the reinstatement of appropriate walls, railings and hedges to boundaries throughout the Conservation Area. Also encourage improvement of existing boundaries where necessary.
  • Coordination of colour and design and improvement in quality of street furniture and flooring.
  • Ensure the visual gaps between Pembroke Villas are maintained and not encroached upon by further side extensions or other unsympathetic development.
  • Encourage improvements in the design of front garden parking and boundary treatment and resist new applications for front garden car parking.
  • Redesign the small urban square in front of Old Palace Terrace to reduce the dominance of traffic and parked cars.
  • Use the existing ribbed bollard design should any further bollards be required on the Green.
  • Keep open prospects of the Green free of signage as far as possible.
  • Street scene general guidelines: existing areas of high-quality paving (such as stone and granite) should be maintained and extended if possible. Established patterns of street furniture should be continued or refer to the Council's Public Space Design Guide. Colour street furniture in black, and bollards and railings associated with the Green in white.
  • Manage and maintain the quality trees and consider additional tree planting.

Updated: 20 July 2022

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